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It would be fun to see someone try to translate this to English sometimes but not sing it in English! Most of all, this album sounds Russian.
There's no doubt about where this music originates. It's not like any other ethnic sound you've ever heard before. I recommend this album, especially for those into the classical or medieval types of music mixed with their progressive.
It's also the kind of music you seem to hear a bit more in each time you listen to it Vitaly translates the album title as "Elijah" rather than Boheme's "Ilya" - Ed.
There is not too much precise information on this Russian band in the CD booklet, and especially with regard to its future after releasing Elijah in the LP form in of the last century.
Epos was formed in and thanks, first of all, to the band's permanent concert activity their unique music was heard and appreciated by the people at the only Soviet label "Melodiya".
Unfortunately, Elijah was the only one album released by Epos, because such well-known events as the fall and the following devastation of the USSR just took their course.
The same words, though, can apply to plenty of other ex-Soviet artists, and of course, especially to those whose creation was non-commercial absolutely remember Horizont , the best, I think, USSR band ever existed: Sad to know that.
For example, Epos was a very special band, and their only release remains very special up to now - as really the only one such album in the whole "progressive" world.
As well as in the case with Pesniary 's Gusliar , Elijah is another work of the Classic Rock Opera genre, considering their, as a matter of fact, progressivity only that, though.
But if Gusliar with its distinct originality is nevertheless based on the traditional Classic Symphonic Art Rock structures, formed in the early '70s, Elijah offers a kind of Progressive Rock you have never listened before.
All the basic instrumental and vocal themes of Elijah were not just taken from the Old Russian music - they were composed exactly this "ancient way", having both forms of the Old Russian Epic - musical and lyrical - as main influences.
Played with the same instruments as all the basic themes violins, cellos, some percussion and barely notable touches of bass and keyboards almost all arrangements here have the same, obviously ancient and very Russian flavour not Celtic, Saxon, et.
Thus, all in all, Elijah was the first and still is the only Acoustic Rock Opera. As for the "almost", there are just a few pieces of traditional progressive arrangements played with the fast keyboard passages and powerful work of the rhythm-section on the album that have a contemporary sound.
The presence of bits of modern progressive arrangements on this monolithic and unique, really ancient musical landscape, seems justifiable because they are interspersed with antiquity there very appropriately.
All the vocals parts were sung of course in the Old Russian language and all the male and female arias, as well as choruses, sound unusually yet fantastic to the accompaniment of mostly dramatic slow passages of violins.
As for the string instruments in particular, I have never heard they to be sounding such specifically, such "anciently". Elijah is something more than just a unique album.
This masterpiece is undoubtedly a "child" of Progressive Music, but it may be as if an "illegitimate child" of Progressive Rock that keeps aloof from anything created within the genre.
Check it out and discover another new "progressive territory" and get great pleasure, like a pioneer, listening to this ancient beauty, charming so mysteriously on the threshold of the third millenium.
Click here to read Vitaly Menshikov's full review on his ProgressoR web site Click here for Boheme's web site You can mail order Boheme titles by e-mailing to boheme iol.
Gabrelius 00 On the Hill Again Several of these folks have been replaced by new members since this photo was taken.
Orchestra is a Ukranian Russian band playing an orchestral style of thick, lush movie-soundtrack style music. My wife said of it, "it would be good music to have on in a restaurant".
Not difficult to listen to at all, in fact it borders on what I would call "easy listening", though the experimentation with ethnic sounds and harmonies, spacey sections and rock drumming does give this band a progressive edge.
This isn't just another four-piece band trying to sound symphonic, it's an actual orchestra of variable size, but some of the live cuts on On the Hill Again credit up to ten people playing at once.
No need for electronic sampling technology or Mellotron s to sound orchestral here, they are playing brass, strings and woodwinds in addition to the standard guitars, bass, drums and piano.
They also feature cameo appearences of what I assume are various ethnic instruments that I'm not even sure what they are, such as domra, bayan, clarine, gusli, metallophone and mellophone.
Gabrelius is a studio album which has sounds ranging across many easy listening some might even say "new agey" or "world music" styles, such as ethnic Russian fast balalaika plucking, oriental wood flutes, middle eastern or Greek violins, Arabic percussion or an Indian sitar-like drone.
The sound may then become like cool lounge jazz complete with sax solo for awhile before travelling off to some other faraway soundscape.
On the Hill Again is a similar album, but is a mix of studio and live recordings. As near as I can tell most of the CD insert text is in Russian , this is a concept album with fantasy themes, since it keeps mentioning Elves, Knights and castles.
Like Gabrelius , it is pretty much instrumental, though the last cut "On the Hill Again" has vocals sung in well-pronounced English.
The second cut, "Jasper Garden", may drive you crazy since the basic 4-note motif used throughout the song is the opening notes to the old "Bewitched" television series, though I'm sure this was unintentional On the Hill Again also has a lot more "free jazz" style improvisation than Gabrelius , some of it even getting into "avant-garde" territory.
This actually provides a nice contrast to the easier-to-listen-to sections. By the way, the recording quality on the live sections is excellent To be frank, if I had listened to these album "cold", I'm not sure I would have really thought of them as progressive, but there is a lot to like about them nonetheless.
If any of this sounds interesting to you, check out their web site where you can order the albums. I would give On the Hill Again a try first, moving on to Gabrelius only if you enjoy that album.
Next, if you like this, try out Romislokus , another Russian band that sounds to me very similar. I think that Gabrielius should be taken as the first album of the band because there is no information concerning other works of the band in the EJO's booklet.
A genre label on the back cover describes the style of the music presented on the album as Jazz plus Contemporary Music, but not as Jazz plus Creative Music.
Jazz is not enough here to swear by, though there is a certain "fusion flavor" here. Made somewhere in Europe but not in Austria , "Gabrielius", whatever audiofans from the high-end may say, sounds perfect and is wonderfully designed like the overwhelming majority of the "Bohemian" production in general.
EJO is led by the only absolute leader and author of all compositions Alexis Aleksandrov. Consisting of nine persons, [they] prove to some degree the conception of a little orchestra even when they don't invite guests.
However, in the remaining half of the compositions with predominating meditative and nostalgic moods, there is a big diversity of themes and arrangements for the entire album to have all the qualities which the quality works of the genre have, and which are rather complicated to understand them at once.
The accordion bayan in "Gabrielius" takes up the running in the first track, but later on it wouldn't be a solo leader.
Violins, saxophones and the Aleksandrov's piano lead solo parts swapping places more often. Besides, the passages of an outstanding acoustic guitar-player, vibes-player and various kinds of percussion in general, which rather more often serve as the background for diverse arrangements, play a rather noticed part in the music of Gabrielius , which suddenly crystallizes into a long solo without any support by the remaining instruments.
Despite the fact that On the Hill Again has the same distinctly original and unique sound, which was laid on the debut EJO album, there are a few of the notable differences between these works.
Above all, the composite structures of this "hill" are truly composite. They're more complex than those of Gabrielus. Now, the band refused to use the melancholically meditative shades that were present here and there on their debut album, but concentrated on the further development of their unique style.
All five of the long compositions of this album: And this stylistics is so unique that it deserves to be described in detail. So I have to tell you about all the principal constituents of it before labeling EJO as a band of some of one progressive genre.
It's clear that such a polymorphous stylistics that is a real hallmark of today's EJO! So the number of units of Progressive's Fifth Element genre has grown again, which, with regard to the Slavonic band or the band of Slavonic Progressive, if you will , happened for the first time.
There are almost no repetitions on those five compositions that I've mentioned above. In other words, the arrangements that are featured on them develop almost constantly, which is in many ways close to Academic Music.
All five of the said compositions contain from a few to a dozen of the different musical palettes, most of which consist of very exotic shades.
Although the arrangements that are present on these pieces are moderately quiet rather than powerful, all of them are highly complex and, at the same time, very intriguing.
The slow passages of piano change with diverse and, often, contrasting interplay between passages of acoustic guitar, piano, violin, and Russian harp, and solos of various woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments, etc, again and again.
I would be happy if this band would find a way to distribute their CDs all over the world. Such a wonderful creation as EJO's should not have to be lost for present and future generations of the Progressive Music lovers.
Click here for Er. Orchestra's web site Click here for Vitaly's full review of Gabrelius and here for his full review of On the Hill Again.
Ergo Sum 97 Mixolidio Most of the music is based on the interplay between guitar-driven heavier sections and flute-driven "soothing" ones. The rhytmic section bass, drums plays a conventional role, drumming is quite constant, and the bass never gets too much spotlight.
Both the flute and guitar players are really competent, the latter choses to sound like none of your standard prog heroes Howe , Hackett , Latimer , etc They do, in fact, fall sometimes in a prog metal flavoured playing, or even disguise themselves as mainstream guitar-driven rockers.
Their second CD half studio, half live tracks shows some development in composition and arrangement. In the end, if you like a fair amount of flute in your prog, give it a try.
Click here for Ergo Sum's web site in English and Spanish. Their sound is an elaborate quilt of electric and acoustic guitar reciprocation, outbursts of melodic keyboard color, soaring woodwinds and beautiful vocal harmonies.
Their influences appear to be baroque, medieval and classical music, Italian folk themes, as well as the classic Italian progressive rock of the seventies, like Banco , PFM and others.
The seventeen minute title track is no less than astonishing. I have not personally listened to Rings Of Earthly Light , but, from the various reviews that I have read, this is classified as one of the best progressive bands of the eighties from Italy.
The music is supposedly quite strongly reminiscent of Camel and Rousseau , which would put it squarely in the melodic, symphonic , progressive rock camp.
Rings of Earthly Light is based on the work of guitars often acoustic , flutes and vocals in English. The lineup also includes keyboards, bass, drums and saxophone.
Consequently the compositions are based on acoustic-folk influences guitars and flute but also feature symphonic keyboard work and developments with a more electric sound.
The music has a light, often romantic flavour that is barely betrayed by the richness of the production, the warmth of the arrangements or the precision and efficiency of the rhythms.
Again I'll have to disagree with Freeman 's opinions. While he is often very accurate when describing re-releases and older material, he grades the modern bands too easily.
While Italy's Eris Pluvia is a step above most neo-progressive , it still isn't anything special. Their influences are many but obvious: They are largely based around acoustic guitar strumming and low-to-mid level rhythm complexity combined with recorder, keys and guitar leads.
Another comparison that comes to mind is the extremely obscure Fireballet anybody else like them? The music is pretty, the vocals pleasing but too straight ahead to keep my interest.
But they aren't bad either. Their combination of styles is unique, though every time the sound changes I sit there thinking, "This sounds so much like Unlike other Italian contemporaries such as Men of Lake and Nuova Era , Eris Pluvia has a modern sound, but they lack the majesty of the former and the technical prowess of the latter.
Worthwhile for those looking for a melodic, mellow and even thoughtful CD to buy. Otherwise, don't run out looking for it.
I got a demo from them with four songs at least one of them truncated to show what the new album sounds like.
Wow, I really like this Two of the four songs have vocals in English by a pretty good vocalist with only a slight Italian accent. Some of the electric guitar soloing borders on prog-metal , though the symphonic accompaniment keeps it from sounding prog-metal ish overall.
It's a nice mixture of sounds, yet also harks back to the '70's "Italian Prog" sound. Bottom line is that this demo did its job Keep on the lookout for the release by clicking on the link to their web site below.
Right now it's only in Italian, but they're promising an English set of pages "Presto" soon. One of the other prog web sites claims that Eris Pluvia "became" The Ancient Veil , but that's not really correct.
The previous Eris Pluvia GEPR update, stating that the new album would be released in , was just a wee bit off the mark Still, I can't really complain.
If it took them a little extra time to make this album sound this good, then it was well worth the wait.
Because Third Eye Light is an exceptionally great piece of work. Firstly -- and this wasn't at all evident from the previously-reviewed demo -- this is a concept album.
No flying saucers, dragons or rampant Gods in this concept, though. This is mature prog, and "bombastic" is the last word that will come to mind when you listen to this album.
The concept is about somebody going to a "show". At first it's not clear what sort of "show" it is, but as the story moves along, it's apparently a show of paintings The songs are about the feelings being experienced while looking at the art, the reactions of others in the gallery, and the reactions of the person telling the story to the other patrons' reactions.
Finally, there's a surprise ending. But I won't spoil it for you. Pure poetry in lyrical form. Musically, I'll stick by my previous description The vocals are almost all in English, with a noticeable Italian accent.
Usually a heavy accent grates on my nerves a bit, and I'm one of those who usually says, "I wish they had just sung it in their own language.
These accented vocals fit perfectly with the music and I wouldn't have them change a thing. Don't listen to anyone who tries to categorize this as " neo-prog ".
It's very mature Italian-style prog. A casual listen might make you think this is AOR, but when you listen carefully, the complexity level is too high for that.
It's just so smoothly performed and cleanly recorded that you don't immediately notice the "progressiveness".
I'm very impressed with Third Eye Light and highly recommend it to all lovers of the mellower end of the symphonic prog spectrum, particularly if you like the Italian style.
High on my list for "best of ". Showing Italian elegance to the extreme, EC's music is quite beautiful and as a quartet they show amazing versatility with the instruments they used.
The music works very well as a whole and is very soothing and spacious. They offer a rich blend of progressive folk-rock, jazz and classically influenced themes, using multi-guitars, piano, cello, synthesizers, bass, flute and drums.
Their superb, gentle vocal harmonies in Italian are complimentary to the music, and may remind of early Simon and Garfunkel at times.
An exceptional concept album. Recently some previously- unreleased stuff from the vaults has been released, haven't heard it yet.
Two-guitar band from the Basque country. On Ametsaren Bidea , they display that unique Basque talent of making a lot with a little.
Though there are no keyboards, the sound is very full and layered, the long title track and "Andere" especially display the striking group synergy well.
You don't have to be a fan of guitar-based music to like them. Click here for more info. Reverse of Life 98 , Demo CD. They did covers of '60's and '70's rock and prog bands, and also wrote their own songs.
There's only a little recorded output Esagil 's releases on their web site which are all I've heard have a very sparse sound.
That's not necessarily a bad thing, I'd say the same of Van der Graaf Generator though Esagil doesn't sound much like them, except for their sparseness.
These cuts might even have been recorded "live in the studio" with no overdubs or maybe just the keys overdubbed judging from the way they sound.
If The Doors had been more prog and less psych, they might be a good comparison. Definitely a "late '60's" sound. The vocals do seem to strain a bit sometimes and the recording quality isn't quite up to a full release.
But after all, these were demo recordings. The compositions certainly have their interesting points, and a full-blown recording session with some overdubs, sweetening and studio effects could have made these something special.
As it is now, we'll have to guess at what they could have become, because they disbanded in Click here for Esagil 's web site.
They also spot a good drummer coming from Furio Chirico's school. Their only CD Vicolo was released in Their music sounds very jazz-rock oriented.
Vicolo includes instrumental songs only which flow nicely together. Too short lived to tell more. It is worth the purchase for jazz-rock lovers.
I keep hearing them compared to Krautrockers like Ash Ra Tempel and Can , but since I'm not familiar with those bands, I can't comment. Their sound does resemble other things within my experience, like the atonal improvisational interludes between "normal" songs on The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway , or the less melodic spacey improvs of the older Pink Floyd or Hawkwind albums.
It also resembles some of the earliest Tangerine Dream , particularly Electronic Mediations with its sound-sculpting aspects overshadowing the melodic ones.
But the recording quality on Due to a Faulty Premonition is much cleaner, and you can hear every subtle nuance of each instrument.
At any rate, you can throw away any chemical hallucinogenics you may have floating around. Listening to Escapade on a good set of headphones will propel you to about the same sectors of the galaxy, and Escapade doesn't show up on a random drug test at work, either!
For Space Rock fans, these guys are a must! I have also heard Remembrance of Things Unknown , a limited edition CD which features previously unreleased recordings of the band.
The description of this CD would be pretty much like Due to a Faulty Premonition , but perhaps a bit rougher because these are mostly recordings of live improvs rather than in the studio.
The album opens with a man shouting something across a studio, before a guitar line kicks in. At first I figured I'd been misinformed, since all the reviews made Escapade out to be rather amelodic, and this was really rather tuneful - even folksy - despite the spooky electric drone that flows underneath.
But that moment turned out to be a trap for the casual listener. It only lasts a few seconds, before the players seem to lose their ability all at once, turning to an odd mass of notes.
That's when the real fun begins. The electric drone which flavours the music becomes more insistent now, turning first into a hornet's nest and then into a wall of bass.
The song's atmosphere becomes progressively dark and claustrophobic, making "Sound Trap" a very accurate title indeed.
Finally the masses of atonal guitars, echoing drums and choir-like synths fade away into haunting traces, leading the listener into the further dark waters of the album.
Without wanting to describe every song on here in highly pretentious detail, it continues throughout in a very sinister, exploratory vein.
You can hear why people can't believe that these are all free improvisations - just listen to how the mess of distant metallic guitar noise, clicking drums and dripping water join together on "When A Squall Line Beckons", transporting the listener into a deep underground cave with trains rattling above, before forming into a long tunnel of sound.
Claustrophobia is a regular feature of this album it seems, although the flipside - the huge spacious landscapes conjured up by "I See Things" for example - is no less disconcerting.
If the over-done descriptions preceding haven't given you a headache, I have to say that writing them has helped me realise something else about Escapade: Anyway, purple prose aside this album is genuinely amazing to hear.
If you like your music dense, experimental and relentless, this album will blow you away. If you tend towards the symphonic end only, don't bother.
You won't enjoy it. Then a strangely menacing bass line and the hoarse sound of an echoing, dirty guitar. The guitar could be laughing at you for all you know.
It's an uneasy start to the record, to be sure, but then the last album should have prepared us for that. Clearly, Escapade don't "do" easy listening.
The guitar sounds become more insistent and dissonant as it goes along. And believe me, it does go along. Somebody must have complained about the brevity of the tracks on Due To A Faulty Premonition , because "Sirens" clocks in at a weighty 19 minutes and eleven seconds.
The song continues in distinctly un-symphonic fashion, with variously ghostly and aquatic electronic textures piled on top.
Resisting the desire to describe any more of the song which would fill pages of space , things only become more odd from here in. This track conjures up a long, lonely journey, either through space, the ocean or the desert, depending on how you read it.
It's much more spacious than quite a lot of Escapade's stuff, and utterly breathtaking. Out of nowhere the song jumps into "Circumference", a much more threatening and confrontational piece, which is a shock after the haunting emptiness of the last few minutes.
It's a brilliant piece of work. Rule 3 is a pretty good album overall, although initially not as good as Premonition.
Whilst I wouldn't hesitate to say that Escapade's stuff is varied, fascinating stuff, I would have to say that whatever they do, they tend to end up with pretty menacing tunes, often pretty claustrophobic.
Not intentional, I'm sure, but it's definitely what I hear when I listen to this album Never mind that though.
Check out the raw cover of "Interstellar Overdrive", surely one of the highest songs in Escapade's family tree. Remembrance of Things Unknown: Every band has them.
Some are brilliant, some suck like a vacuum cleaner. This one's quite nifty as it turns out. The opening track, "Maelstrom Machine" made me say something that the rock press never thought you'd hear around a progressive rock band: And it is, in a typically uneasy Escapade fashion.
There's a strong feeling of being followed coming from this song. Just as "Maelstrom Machine" has faded away, "When Whenever Comes" jumps out of the darkness with a cymbal crash, dancing around the listener in a wall of percussive urgency and weird, abbreviated guitar notes.
It slowly builds into a hard-rocking flurry, still taunting and chasing the listener as if in a race. Towards the end it slows and returns to the more psyche-funk sound of "Maelstrom Machine".
The sounds made by the guitar are hard to describe, but "alien" would be a good word for them. It's pure science fiction to listen to, and I mean that in a good way.
The song begins on a cliff, overlooking a dark, stormy sea. It lingers there for a while, before fading into a long, dark and narrow metal tunnel, as drums echo from some unseen location outside.
I'll stop before I get too colourful, but hopefully you get the picture. Of all three of the albums, "Remembrance Of Things Unknown" is maybe the most hit-and-miss.
It's definitely good, but there are points where you can tell why this stuff wasn't released when it was recorded.
A hardcore fan's album then. The moment you put on Eskaton's 4 Visions , one word spews forth: In fact, the line-up of Eskaton is very similar to Magma circa Live Hhai.
Replace Magma 's violinist with a third keyboardist and the male vocals with a second female vocalist and Magma becomes Eskaton. OK, so Konig is no Vander To call Eskaton a Magma clone would be be entirely untrue; however, by the second song, "Attente," a few zeuhl layers are peeled away to reveal more of Eskaton's own perspective.
The CD booklet is rather emphatic in pointing out that Eskaton doesn't sing in some esoteric, made-up language but instead sing in French, for the People, about the People.
Regardless, the undeniable influence of Magma is never far away. Undoubtedly, some listeners will dismiss Eskaton as a Magma clone but I think Eskaton does have something to offer.
The music is demanding, daunting and challenging, regardless of who is playing it. That Eskaton can and do is a testament to their talent.
To me, 4 Visions is essential listening. The four visions, according to the booklet, "paints an angry picture of Man in his Concrete City "Ecoute" , in his Destiny "Eskaton" , in his response to the nuclear bomb "Attente" , and in his facing up to Death "Pitie".
It opens with a particularly murderous version of "Eleanor Rigby. Esperanto have the usual drums, bass, keyboards, and male and female vocals, but also use two violins and a cello.
These guys are fairly complex but we're not talking UZ or Art Zoyd and build good intensity. Strong string presence obviously. Kinda classical, kinda fusion y, kinda proggy, pretty unique.
Six songs, three per side. Three of these are longer minutes and three shorter minutes. The shorter songs are kinda "singlish" and coulda been heard on the radio in the mid-'70s.
That's not to imply they are bad songs, but the longer cuts are much better developed. I'm doing a hack job here.
Danse Macabre is also very good. On Rock Orchestra , the band consists of 12 members playing lots of instruments, including three vocalists, flutes, violins, guitars, keyboards, drums and bass.
The music is sometimes like standard '70s rock and nothing special and sometimes really complex progressive rock. The band sometimes shows potential on what was to come on later albums like the good one Last Tango.
On Last Tango the band is reduced to eight members and the music is a lot better and more progressive than on Rock orchestra. There is some killer stuff on Last Tango.
Click here for Claude Wacker 's excellent fan web site. Potentially one of the very best Argentine progressive bands am I repeating myself and an excellent example of one of the world's most fantastic yet unkown progressive scenes.
Their music is much like the Italian 70's bands, yet there is definitely a strong Southern cultural influence, and the mix of these influences with those of Gong, Yes , Osanna, and Genesis makes their second and only available CD Crisalida a must have.
One of the best ever. Excellent Argentinian symphonic progressive. The closest comparisons would be the blending best of the 70's Italian progressive bands.
Plenty of melodic synth and rhythmic acoustic guitar that suddenly shifts to heavy electric guitar, the back to synth and vocal harmonies, typical of many Italian bands such as Semiramis and Balletto di Bronzo.
Espiritu, however, seems to have a little more of the lyricism evident in other Italian bands such as PFM.
Don't be fooled though, because the music gets intense GREAT synth work abounds! This has to be one of the best symphonic South American progressive albums ever.
Crisalida is well worth your while, with some unbelievably fast guitar and synthesizer runs which will take your breath away. The music shunts between a melodic Latin American version of P.
One minus point, their singer, who sounds okay during the rockier parts, but gets on my nerves in the softer sections.
I really can't describe why, perhaps it's just a personal dislike on my part. Otherwise, I'd recommend running out and getting this.
The original keyboardsman Gustavo Fedel had been replaced by Ciro Fogliatta, who now introduces a harder edge to the organ and synthesizer sounds.
Besides, Osvaldo Favrot takes his guitar playing into the jazz-fusion realm, and so does the rhythm section. All these elements fused together resulted in a very somber album, which combines the usual colors of symphonic prog and typical touches of South American acoustic sensibility with the dark intensity of e.
Mahavishnu Orchestra and King Crimson. In my opinion, since this is a more varied recording, full of dramatic contrasts in mood and tempo, Libre y Natural is an improvement compared to their debut album which is also excellent, no doubt about it!
A few months before the release of Libre This factor led guitarist Favrot and singer Fernando Berge to keep on working together, forming a new band called Aspid.
Three new members came into the fold: Since many years has passed since their last album, it is no surprise that this album didn't sound like the first two.
While still symphonic in nature, you can note the presence of a wide array of latin-jazz touches, and even some occasional funky elements in this album.
The compositions are not focused on a unitary concept this time: Similarities can be found with their fellow band Pablo El Enterrador.
On the other hand, "Un Viaje por los Recuerdos" bears some hint of their earlier style. A very good album, with some bright moments, but not that great really.
Since their third album failed to raise a major interest in the times of new-wave and techno-pop, Berge decided to break away from the band in order to purse a solo career.
The result was En Movimiento , allegedly a dull poppy album, full of mellow ballads and mid-tempo rockers.
Well aware of the decline of their creativity, the foursome decided to dissolve the band for good. Or so it seemed In August , he joined forces with Pablo Guglielmino lead vocal, acoustic guitar , Ernesto Romeo keyboards , Horacio Ardiles drums, percussion, backing vocal , and Osvaldo's son Federico bass, backing vocal.
Right away, they started writing and recording new material, which supposedly will be released in CD format sometime in Toni Esposito Italian jazz drummer and percussionist.
His self-titled first album belies a very strong "Bitches Brew"-era Miles Davis influence, and featured Miles ' musical associate Paul Buckmaster who later played Elton John 's band!
Gente Distratta is a very sunny, tuneful and melodic, almost lightweight, jazz-fusion record, with a feel somewhat reminiscent of Weather Report , circa "Mysterious Traveller".
La Banda de Sole continues in the same vein, but with a pronounced Mediterranean ethnic flavor mandocellos, odd time signatures, lots of hand percussion, odd vocals on some tracks.
Born in Naples, the mecca of southern Italy progressive rock, Toni Esposito 's music showed a strong mediterannean root since the very early days.
At the beginning of the 70's, Toni started his very long career as guest musician. He first played as drummer and percussionist for Edoardo Bennato , Alan Sorrenti on his first three albums , and appeared on the first Saint Just record too.
He was soon recognized as one of the most inventive percussionists in Europe. He developed a unique capability to make a very nice percussion sound out of cooking pans, glasses, practically out of any possible object to be found in a kitchen.
He was also known for bringing back to life old traditional instruments from South Italy, Caraibeean Islands, Black Africa and South America music cultures.
His first two solo albums Rosso Napoletano and Processione Sul Mare were well accepted by both public and critics. Those poppier melodies which eventually became Toni Esposito 's trademark in the 80's, when his production went along a more commercial direction to achieve stardom status in Europe.
His popular song "Kalimba de luna" sold more than 6 millions copies worldwide. Exhausted from the commercial success, he went on to teaching music therapy for many years.
However, he found time and energy for recording two more records which received little attention. In , he went back to a recording studio for his new album Viaggio Tribale: Unfortunately, this last record just showed that his best years were gone.
The first two album are worth the purchase for people looking for mediterranean jazz-rock music. This is really a GG singing in French, with a female voice!
I only know Et Cetera by them. I wonder if they have any other releases Now, in almost , I've discovered that someone has created a MySpace page for them see link below.
In fact, it's been there since and I've only just noticed it. But if you want to hear some of this band, there are six cuts from the album listed above available to listen to in the music player.
Wonder what ever happened to them? One of my earliest entries in the GEPR probably late in , I wasn't keeping track of dates yet was added concerning a band I stumbled across while surfing for prog bands.
This was what I said at the time: Imagine you could take the notes from an 80's Crimson tune, throw them on the floor at random, then pluck up these shuffled notes and rearrange them on the staff in a new order, but with the same rhythm.
Then play them with a style somewhere between 80's Crimson and the Ozrics. This is what the Etcetera MP3's sound like on their web site which is all I've heard of them.
This is pretty cool stuff. Warning, the recording quality leaves something to be desired on some songs, at least on the MP3's.
I've talked to him several times via e-mail, but he doesn't really have a web site. However, he did e-mail me a listing of all his albums currently available for the discography above.
Beyond Neptune is an album of good old-fashioned space rock , sounding at turns like Hawkwind , Gong or Tangerine Dream.
Orlando plays synthesizers and guitar, programs drum machines and vocalizes I would hesitate to say "sings".
The music varies quite a bit from noisy electronics to spacey electonics and all the way to punk thrash.
Beyond Neptune is a loose concept album about leaving the polluted Earth behind and finding new worlds to settle. Just what a space rock album should be about.
This is an excellent album for those who enjoy space rock , one of my favorite prog genres. You can obtain a copy from Aural Innovations see link below.
And thank you, Lynnette for the e-mail introduction to Richard! Click here to order Beyond Neptune from Aural Innovations. Click here to e-mail Richard Orlando for any titles not available through Aural Innovations.
Etna were a fusion quartet featuring among others the future Goblin drummer Agostino Marangolo. Their single album Mellow Records MMP offers loads of sprightly instrumental fusion where guitarist Carlo Pennisi sprinkles crisp but melodic riffs and leads around Antonio Marangolo's Agostino's brother?
The quieter songs seem the most interesting to me, particularly the closer "Barbarian Serenade" which shows some Spanish influence in its stately chord progression, trilling mandolin and incessant piano runs.
Overall, this album sports a typical 's fusion sound, and achieves a good balance of melodic sensibility and pyrotechnics, which keeps it fresh and away from the traps of self-indulgence and sterility.
Batelanges 77 Les Trois Fous Perdegagnent au pays des One of the more important cultural offshoots of the RIO sound along with Aqsak Maboul, Henry Cow, and Samla, EFL were a French quartet who made stunningly interesting music in the vein of "where no man has gone before" type of music.
Not for the musically timid and conservative, EFL will be very rewarding to those who like the Henry Cow theme. Their three CD - 5 album compilation 43 songs has just been released and is the ideal way of listening to this band.
Complex strict composition and wild improvisation. Boy can they play. Of their five studio albums even one cannot be partially described, let alone fully grasped.
I have 43 Songs , which probably contains all five studio albums. I say probably, because I'm not sure. Their credo seems to be that of avoiding anything but music, and their moniquer tells us everything about them if one is sufficiently acquainted with French.
Hints of sort of towering music, huh? I had to go searching through whole Web to find at least tracklist.
I found it though, but this wasn't the end of trouble. The albums were repressed on CD in rather "ad hoc" manner.
The particular CD does not contain exactly an album or two, instead that, the albums are put on CD's subsequently due to quantity of space needed for putting everything on as low number of CD's as possible.
Tracklist figures out 45 tracks in total, while cd-player-counter decipher only So, it is obvious that few tracks were excluded or merged together for the reason of who know how's our Father.
But music is great, and not so inaccessible as you may think. Yet at the second listening I started to trace some really promising features, and the atmosphere on the all albums is fairly humurous, friendly and of course quirky.
It has certain appeal, if you can believe me. Sometimes, it sounds like pothead pixies known from another happy french band have gone around discovering various unknown feelings, different dimensions through lotta different situations expand their minds, widen their horizons, ha-ha , and try to inspire the present musicians.
And within these moments they succeeded to great extent! I don't know who sang, but woman it was definitely not. I'll try to describe each album, although I'm not sure if I'll succeed percently, for the content of the package sounds to be from one "parallel" world, barely experienced until today.
There's a lot of spoken or even acted word, which tells an out-of-touch stories, eg. In lyrics they have used puns, palindromes, mocking of banal things, exaggerating pretentious, huh?
The Disc 1 starts with Batelages , which is hella radical and has fairly neglected sound;. The base is Captain Beefheart era Trout Mask Replica mixed with some Gong -isms, North-african ethnic musics strong percussion , french chansons smashed to the indiscernibility, french folk music melodies and chord progressions, elements of contemporary classical, new wave and proto-punk aesthetics, and other elements of unknown source.
So measures are fairly progressive here. This, 2nd album was much better produced, while the elements of possible influences are difficult to detect beside that of "trilogy" era Gong.
This is perhaps prog album, although it has sort of dry "wavy" sound. As on debut, vocalist whoever had sung tried to stretch his voice.
Overall, even more out-there and consequently great. This album has considerable wave influence and it proves that as possible influences only craziest bands could be taken here Residents circa Mole trilogy.
They continue with weird stories which describe banal things and with puns. By some tracks they are used to swerve into different direction, style and tonality.
A differently strange recording and certainly not bad. Taste needs to be acquired. Les Sillons de la Terre begins along with the track number 13 of the Disc 2 and closes together with a track no.
While having less strict prog influences than predecessing recordings, it is the easiest to get into, I'd say. It witnesses the coming of female keyboardist Jo Thirion, which made already weird Fou-sound even weirder, but within less wild and complex environment and so representing considerable sophistication.
Album is suffused with tongue in cheek humour and acrid sarcasm. Worth to mention is that this band was probably the least liable to dissonances.
OK, some oblique harmonies appear, mostly with Jo's keys, but these have been rarely splintered into something less listenable, although still not unbearable.
Face Aux Elements Dechaines , which kicks off with the track no. Jo's keyboards seem to be prevalent instruments, as they forge penetrably angular melodies.
Again they were tempted to use different tools of supreme humour, mentioned many times above. How French band came to play in the states is thoroughly described in liner notes.
Well, there they had played as free as on regular albums. Most tracks show band ability to "compose sponataneously".
With exception of "Le Fleuve One ditty is a military version of Beethoven's "Für Elise". Band ceased to exist in , but their members have recorded about four times EFL-opus, of usually quirky, naive and experimental music until today.
Jo Thirion may have come the closest to their basic sound, with her very own band, called Art Moulu , which released an album in In spite of the fact, how scared you are after reading these lines, you should give them a whirl, when you'll start to discover progressive music or if you already started doing that.
Etron Fou Leloublan is a strange name Don't ask me what it means, but it must be this because white wolves figure prominently into several of their album covers.
The name is long enough and difficult to pronounce enough that we English-speakers usually contract it to EFL, a convention I'll also follow from here on out.
I had heard their name for years, but they were not one of the bands I was exposed to back in the '70's when I started listening to prog. As much as I like them now, I'm sure they would have been elevated in my mind to godhood if I'd heard them back then, much like Gong , who they resemble in some ways.
Musea actually stocks EFL's entire catalog, so if this sounds interesting to you, you can order any EFL title from them.
Les Trois Fous Perdegagnent has the band in their earliest form as a trio, with drums Gigou Chenevier , bass Ferdinand Richard and sax Francis Grand for this album, though he had just replaced Chris Chanet and would soon be followed by Bernard Mathieu and other sax players on later records.
The album is full of the usual late's studio effects, a very odd rhythm section with Chenevier and Richard creating jagged backdrops against which Grand screams Didier Malherbe-like sax and flute solos, making Les Trois Fous Perdegagnent remind me frequently of early pre- Tim Blake Gong , particularly Camembert Electrique.
EFL is easily identifiable as a French band aside from their French lyrics by similarities to other early French prog like Magma , Gong who were about half French in their early days and even Cyrille Verdeaux , though EFL has none of Cyrille 's spiritual leanings.
Fans of the above-mentioned bands who don't mind a Henry Cow level of anarchy will unundoubtedly find much to like about Les Trois Fous Perdegagnent.
The vocals are also more complex, melodic and "composed". However, it's far from an album that would have ever received any radio airplay.
Both of these albums are true progressive gems, and anyone who has not heard Etron Fou Leloublan can hardly call themselves a progressive rock fan.
Now that I've been "initiated" into the ranks of their fans, I'll be slowly trying to complete my collection. Incredible stuff, I can't recommend it more highly.
By most of the first-generation neo-progressive rock bands in Britain had either broken up or assumed albeit temporarily a more overtly commercial style.
On the Continent, other bands were following the trails they had opened - and too often ending up in the same mire.
Take Eurhybia and their one album, for instance. Eurhybia UGUM CD UGU is a classic example of what happens when neo-progressive 's quite respectable brief of marrying seventies symphonic progressive sound with the pop accessibility and technology of the eighties goes awry.
Here "pop accessibility" becomes limp, bland songs with nary a hook in sight, while "progressive" means clumsily cramming them full of extra sections, breaks and time-signature shifts which only serve to confuse the rhythm section.
The guitarist does the perfunctory powerchords and leads with all the grace and personality of a petrol pump, while the vocalist offers passion, drama and omnipresence - but not much voice.
The keyboard player gives the most solid performance of the lot, doing a few good melody lines and some interesting percussive licks on the two instrumentals.
However, one doesn't have to be a card-carrying member of the Analog Orthodoxy to cringe at the tortured plastic shriek of the brass patch he inundates almost everything with.
In any case, the album manifests all the symptoms of demo-quality recordings in the lates, from dated electronic toms to shaky lead synthesizer patches.
While Eurhybia doesn't plumb the depths of Deyss ' infamous camp-classic At King , it still serves to show that things had to get really bad with neo-progressive rock, before they could get better.
Fortunately, in a couple of years time, they did. Ever Unreleased rehearsal demo tape, see text. It was spawned before Gordian Knot and later mysteriously withdrawn.
Two tracks can be heard on Japanese release of Gordian Knot 's debut. Evergrey - Not in photo order - Tom S. Lead singer and guitarist Tom Englund became the bands focal point, and his unique vocals and talented guitar skills helped set the band apart from others in the genre.
With heavy and sometimes technical guitar riffs, symphonic keyboards, driving rhythms, and powerful yet soulful vocals, the debut made a quick impact on the scene and set the wheels in motion.
The album was melodic, yet extremely heavy, with raging power metal rhythms courtesy of drummer Patrick Carlsson and bassist Daniel Nojd , and the beefy dual guitar attack of Englund and Dan Bronell provided plenty of crunchy riffs and intricate lead work.
Englund 's vocals continued to improve, as he added more catchy hooks and emotional passages in amongst the aggressive songs.
Once again produced by La Rocque , the album continued to impress the general metal audience but also started to draw a lot of interest within the progressive rock crowd.
This led to the band getting noticed by and signed to InsideOut Music , who then released their third album, the concept piece In Search of Truth , the bands take on extraterrestrial visitation.
The album also saw the first of what would be a few personnel changes over the years, as guitarist Bronell left the band and was replaced by Henrik Danhage , bassist Nojd was replaced by Michael Hakansson , and the band recruited Sven Karlsson as a full-time keyboard player.
The album contained some dark and sinister lyrics that really provoked lovers of science fiction and the unknown, and contained a host of strong songs like "The Masterplan", "Rulers of the Mind", and "Mark of the Triangle".
Many of the songs were even more complex and symphonic than before, although the band still employed a heaping dose of melody. Produced by the band with help from La Rocque , Recreation Day had a huge, full sound, and memorable songs.
Tracks such as "End of Your Days", "The Great Deceiver", "As I Lie Here Bleeding", "Blinded" , and the title track, saw a band that was at the height of their powers, able to write catchy songs with bone crunching riffs and tricky instrumental passages.
At this point, Tom Englund 's vocals had developed into one of the more unique in all of metal, and he showed his poignant side on the cover of the Swedish ballad "I'm Sorry".
The album also saw new keyboard player Rikard Zander join the band. That was not to be the last line-up change, as charismatic drummer Carlsson soon left the band and was replaced by Jonas Ekdahl in time for 's The Inner Circle.
It was also to be the first album that the band completed without the help of Andy La Rocque. For the first time, the band toured the US as openers to Iced Earth and Children of Bodom , and managed to make their way to many European cities and on many metal festival circuits.
In the band released their last album on their contract for InsideOut titled Monday Morning Apocalypse , a more commercial sounding but still strong release of catchy metal littered with proggy embellishments and solid vocals.
Where Evergrey goes from here is anyone's guess, but there's no doubt the band will continue to gain in popularity and win over new fans. Click here for Evergrey 's web site.
Paradoxes 93 Flood 95 Venus 97 Fantasma 00 Bridge Neo-Progressive band that plays a mix of Rush and New Marillion. They had their first album, Paradoxes , out on the SI music label and it was a great production by Eroc.
Everon is a German quartet that has produced a number of albums. Judging by their debut Paradoxes , they play the kind of hard edged neo-prog obviously influenced by mid's Rush and early 90's Saga: There are some instrumental interludes and obligatory guitar solos, but the main focus is on the vocals.
Vocalist Oliver Philipps is competent, though awfully hectic in his delivery and his upper-register singing gets annoying at times.
The performances are energetic, even though definitely too straight-ahead for those looking for amazing displays of virtuosity and instrumental skill.
My only real problem with this album is that there isn't enough variation between tracks, so a sense of sameness inevitably creeps in.
Still, a recommended album for Rush and Saga fans. Flood followed in , and sees the band trying to diversify their sound a bit with a couple of quieter tracks which rely more on keyboard textures; at the same time, the track "Cavemen" brings the synthesizer up to spotlight with the lead guitar.
Both of these albums were produced by the ex-Grobschnitt drummer Eroc and originally released by SI Music. They were later re-released by Mascot Records, which also put out Everon's third album Venus.
This is probably their most ambitious work. The overall sound is a bit heavier, the guitar is up more and the mix is a bit murkier, but otherwise production remains unchanged.
However, on songs like "Until the Day Breaks" and "Not for Sale", they reach further into progressive terrain with more complex compositions and arrangements.
There are also two instrumental tracks: This is probably the best album to start if you are interested in exploring Everon's music.
Everon returned in with Fantasma , an album that sees them still developing their sound, though with mixed results. The main change is towards a heavier sound that occasionally approaches prog-metal, though maintaining their characteristic melodic style.
There are again some excellent tracks, but also a couple of non-starters, particularly the bland heavy rock number "Fine with Me", and less of the variation that the band achieved on the previous album, the change between heavy bombast and calmer moments becoming quite predictable towards the end.
The main progressive item is the title suite composed of short songs with some recurring themes, and it works surprisingly well I particularly like the brief interjections of violin, cello and classical guitar that colour the basic sound.
The sound is again huge and polished, so much so that it sometimes offsets the shortcomings in the music. Overall, this may be Everon's most uneven album.
Click here for the Everon web site titled "Information Overdose". Evidence's musical north star is definitely Peter Hammill , to whom the album is dedicated.
The lead singer does his best to sound like PH but can't match his vocal range or intensity but then, who could? The first couple of songs or Acts, as they are called here are instrumentally sparse, but effective: Some tracks use some metallic-sounding electronic percussion and electric guitar noise to create a more sinister backdrop for anguished vocal rumblings.
There is almost no ordinary rhythm section on this album, and instrumental sections are simple, designed to enhance the gloomy mood, and sometimes supported by weird sound effects.
Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video. The other local radio service is operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service which also provides a limited cable television network to HM Forces.
The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle , Gibraltar's oldest established daily newspaper and the world's second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously  with daily editions six days a week.
Native Gibraltarians have produced some literature of note. Throughout the s and s, several anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti , Albert Joseph Patron and Alberto Pizzarello.
Trino Cruz is a bilingual poet originally writing English but now mainly in Spanish, who also translates Maghreb poetry. Sanchez , author of the books Rock Black: Mary Chiappe and Sam Benady have also published a series of detective books centred on the character of the nineteenth-century Gibraltarian sleuth Bresciano.
Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalusian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries.
This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine.
Profiteroles , a French choux pastry ball with a sweet filling of whipped cream, is considered to be Gibraltar's national dish.
In , there were 18 Gibraltar sports associations with official recognition from their respective international governing bodies.
Others have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The government supports the many sporting associations financially.
Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games , which it hosted in Football is a popular sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA , but their bid was turned down in in a contentious decision.
Cricket enjoys popularity in Gibraltar. Rugby union is fairly popular and one of the fastest growing team sports. Gibraltar Rugby Football Union applied for membership of Europe's governing body for rugby.
Gibraltar is believed to be the birthplace of the rugby variant Tag Rugby. Darts is also a popular sport, with the Gibraltar Darts Association a full member of World Darts Federation since running leagues and other regular tournaments.
Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure; the telephone operator Gibtelecom also operates a GSM network.
Internet connectivity is available across the fixed network. Gibraltar's top-level domain code is. This has been universally valid since 10 February , when the telecom dispute was resolved.
Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorcycles are also very popular and there is a good modern bus service. There is a Gibraltar Cable Car that runs from ground level to the top of the Rock, with an intermediate station at Apes' Den.
Restrictions on transport introduced by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in and also prohibited any air or ferry connections.
In , the land border was reopened. The border control is the only road border control between two EU members that is expected to remain indefinitely Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania have border controls which are expected to be removed around , however Britain plans to leave the EU.
Motorists and pedestrians crossing the border with Spain are occasionally subjected to very long delays. GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years.
The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways". In , and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems.
As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. EasyJet have since added Bristol and Manchester and also operated flights to Liverpool between and Until entering administration in October , Monarch Airlines operated the largest number of flights between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar, with scheduled services between Gibraltar and Luton , London Gatwick , Birmingham and Manchester.
The Spanish national airline , Iberia , operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased for lack of demand.
Gibraltar International Airport is unusual not only because of its proximity to the city centre resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue , the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart.
New roads and a tunnel, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, were planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of ,   although it has not been completed because of delays.
In addition, the Algeciras Heliport across the bay offers scheduled services to Ceuta. Gibraltar Cruise Terminal receives a large number of visits from cruise ships.
The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour. Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco.
The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.
Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history. There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula.
Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater.
This became increasingly inadequate as Gibraltar's population grew in the 18th and 19th centuries and lethal diseases such as cholera and yellow fever began to spread.
In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.
Today Gibraltar's supply of drinking water comes entirely from desalination , with a separate supply of saltwater for sanitary purposes.
Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. Outside the United Kingdom, the RGP is the oldest police force of the former British Empire , formed shortly after the creation of London's Metropolitan Police in when Gibraltar was declared a crown colony on 25 June In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".
The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic. The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive.
The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units. These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.
Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom tri-services British Forces Gibraltar. In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base.
The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Overseas Territory.
For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation. Gibraltarian [a] other British Maghrebis South Asians. Bernard of Clairvaux Our Lady of Europe.
Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar. Places adjacent to Gibraltar.
List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar. Percentage of population by religion  Percentage Roman Catholic.
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Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar. The Royal Navy 's base in Gibraltar. Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.
Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 3 August Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.
The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.
Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.
British Foreign Policy Group. Retrieved 2 April Gibraltar's strategic and military importance is complemented by financial and gaming leadership".
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Retrieved 7 July Home and Lifestyle Magazine. Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 31 August Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Archived from the original on 9 September Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society.
Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 February Archived from the original PDF on 24 November Spanish seal border as virus ship docks.
Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original PDF on 29 OctoberVerona Pooth empört mit freizügigem Schnappschuss viele Fans. Allen Bula , bis dahin bei allen offiziellen Länderspielen in verantwortlicher Funktion auf der Bank, musste seinen Hut nehmen. Der Bundestrainer bemängelte zuletzt die schlechte Chancenverwertung seiner Mannschaft - das war trotz des knappen 1: Ich will ja nix sagen, aber da kam heute der amtierende Weltmeister und das Stadion war nicht einmal zu einem Viertel gefüllt. In anderen Projekten Commons. Ich will ja nix sagen, aber da kam heute der [ Götze verletzte sich bei der Aktion und musste kurz darauf gegen Kruse ausgetauscht werden Genervter Thomas Gottschalk greift Lanz in Talk an. In der Psuse hatte Schürrle wohl Apfelschorle zu sich genommen. Junge Junge, ich sehe für die Zukunft dieser Mannschaft mehr als schwarz. So dauerte es bis zur Polnischer Politiker fordert gigantische Reparationen von Deutschland. Nicht nur Nazis, sondern auch Muslime: Zwei Gewürze lassen Fettzellen schmelzen.